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What is PCBA Testing?

The full name of PCBA is printed circuit board assembly. Within the batch production method of printed circuit board assembly, because of varied potential factors of kit and operators, it’s not possible to confirm that the assembly of printed circuit board is all intact merchandise. It needs at the tip of the assembly affix a spread of testing instrumentation and testing tools, to confirm that each one of the manufacturing plant’s real printed circuits and also the style of varied specifications and parameters is fully consistent.

Circuit board assembly testing refers to the electrical physical phenomenon of the PCB assembly services, i.e. printed circuit mounted with electronic elements and also includes the detection of the input and output values.

PCBA practical testing not solely tests the part but also the operation of the entire board. This printed circuit test simulates associated surroundings that need actual assembly. With practical testing, up to 100% of PCBs are tested before ECM(Electronics Contract Manufacturer) ships it to the initial instrumentation manufacturer (OEM, ODM).

PCBA online test could be a method of testing whether or not the board we tend to make meets the wants of a practical style at the start, so decisive whether or not the process is qualified or not, consistent with the electrical affiliation of the test purpose and also the host pc software system or the collected information on the printed circuit that has been completed within the method of SMT patch process and DIP plug-in.

To avoid bad quality products, PCB functional testing is undoubtedly a part that cannot be skipped. It is no exaggeration to say that a company's brand reputation is tightly linked to PCBA. It’s no wonder that practical PCBA (printed circuit board) testing is regarded as the top-of-the-production method.


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    Types of PCBA Testing

    The technological process of the PCB assembling process is incredibly advanced, as well as the PCB board-producing method, part procural and review, SMT patch assembly, DIP plug-in, printed circuit assembly test, and many other important processes. More specifically, the final performance of the goods is controlled by the circuit card assembly test resulting from being the most significant internal control link during the entire process. Can you list some types of PCB board assembly testing? The following is Jing Xiaobian for you to delineate the introduction.

    What is particular is that Viasion has endeavored to ensure quality issues all the time by the means of circuit card assembly testing. PCBA testing is indispensable to ensure the quality of each product if it is to avoid problems caused by improper instrumentation or handling during the production and processing of goods to achieve an absolute standard of conformity.

    We will take a glimpse at the ICT test, FCT test, aging test, fatigue test, and harsh surroundings test which is mainly composed of the PCBA test.

    Why is PCBA Testing Necessary?

    Improve the assembly capability of enterprises: the upper the pass rate of the electronic PCB assembly test, the upper the pass rate of merchandise is going to be, which can improve the standard of the merchandise and promote the assembly capability of enterprises.

    Enhance the economic edges of enterprises: solely the merchandise that stands the test is going to be likable by users. within the method of testing, mistakes are going to be found in time and changes are going to be created to create the merchandise a lot of excellent. during this means, the merchandise is going to be favored by customers once placed into the market, therefore stimulating the event of economic edges of enterprises.

    Benefits of PCBA Testing

    PWB assembly testing is an important and indispensable part of ensuring the quality of products. There are benefits of circuit card assembly testing stated below.

    Enhance Quality

    Printed circuit boards testing is conducive to improving the qualification rate of the product and enhancing the quality of the product.

    Increase Customer Satisfaction

    PCB board testing is beneficial to enhance customer satisfaction. The testing can screen out defective products and make modifications to prevent defective products from entering the market.

    Improve Sales

    Electronics assembly testing is beneficial to improve sales performance. High-quality products will bring a good reputation to expand market share and improve sales performance.

    The Methods to Test PCBA

    Common ways of printed circuit board assembly testing are as follows:

    The equipment of the PCBA Testing

    Could you name some kinds of common test instruments for soldering circuit boards? Let’s reveal the answer. The ICT online tester, FCT operate test, and the aging test consists of the equipment of the PWB assembly testing.

    1. ICT online tester

    ICT has the following advantages: a wide range of applications, and simple operation, and is praised for these traits. To achieve these goals of detecting open circuits, short circuits, and damage to the components, the help of this effective test is indeed required. In addition, it can also accurately locate the place of failure, easy to repair.

    2. FCT function test

    Generally speaking, ICT test-qualified products can be transferred to the function test.FCT function test mainly focuses on the corresponding function of each product to test to determine whether the product is good. More specifically, it refers to a test method that provides a simulated operating environment for the test target printed circuit board to operate in various design states, so that the parameters of each state can be obtained to verify the functionality of the test target printed circuit board.

    3. Aging test

    The aging test is generally a simulation of the external environment of the finished circuit board with components, through high temperature, low temperature, high and low-temperature changes, and electrical power and other comprehensive roles to simulate the daily use of the product environment, to expose the defects of the circuit board assembly, such as poor welding, component parameters do not match, as well as the debugging process caused by the failure, to remove and improve, the PCB assembly board without defects will play a role in stabilizing the parameters. Consistent with the electronic merchandise PCBA board for an extended time to simulate the utilization of consumers, input/output testing, to confirm its performance to satisfy the market demand.

    These three styles of testing instrumentation are common within the PWB assembly method. And our company named Viasion takes circuit boards testing seriously in circuit board assembly processing. As a result, customers give feedback that the PCB assembling we delivered to them can well meet the requirements. Besides, the maintenance rate of our products is greatly reduced.

    What is the PCBA Test Fixture?

    PCB soldering test fixture could be vital instrumentation in the PCBA process plant, usually placed at the tip of the assembly link, wont to test whether or not the merchandise is undamaged. once creating and testing PCB assembly test fixtures, it’s necessary to satisfy the desired needs to boost the accuracy of testing and improve the delivery quality.

    Circuit board assembly test fixture could be a fixture specially designed to check and check the operation, power activity, life, and performance of merchandise. As a result, it’s in the main employed in the PCB assembly line for the test of varied indicators of merchandise, therefore it’s known as a printed circuit assembly test fixture.

    1. ICT test(In-Circuit Testing) in the main includes circuit on-off, voltage and current price, fluctuation curve, amplitude, noise, etc.

    2. The purpose of the FCT test is to catch the poorly assembled board, through the simulation of the full-function test when the board is assembled into a complete machine, to catch all the possible defects in the circuit assembly board before the assembly into a complete machine to catch out, to avoid the assembly into a complete machine only to find the bad, but also all the disassembly and reorganization resulting in waste of time and loss of materials.

    3. The fatigue test shoulders the task of taking samples of the PCB assembly services for high frequency and long-term operation function, according to which to observe whether the product is faulty. There is no doubt that the probability of failure in the test can also be well judged. Another point to mention is that it can give excellent feedback on the operation properties of circuit assembly boards in electronic products. This enables us to make timely adjustments for problems.

    4. The test in harsh surroundings is especially to show the PCBA board to the limit temperature, humidity, drop, splash, and vibration to get the test results of random samples, therefore inferring the reliability of the entire batch of PCBA board merchandise.

    5. The Aging test is especially to power circuit card assembly board and electronic merchandise for an extended time, keep them operating and observe whether or not there’s any failure, once the aging test electronic merchandise is sold in batches.

    1. Consistent with the test needs and test board, the structure style of the fixture is applied once the management methodology is chosen. The load plate, pressure plate, and instrumentation module are designed, and also the load plate/pressure plate of the fixture is cheap.

    2. The positioning of the fixture is correct, and also the tying up of the instrumentation ought to be sleek.

    3.The fixture box layout is cheap, and the wiring and installation of the system area are spare.

    4. The glass fiber /MIC/SPK/SIM card analog slot ought to be reserved and in an exceedingly quasi-area.

    5. Jig’s reserved interface position ought to be correct, sufficient, and cheap layout.

    6. The lock of the fixture box ought to be applied by suggesting that of case buckle or pressing buckle for straightforward replacement and maintenance.

    7. Correct zero correction. The zero drift of the test fixture can amendment with the amendment of test conditions or different test fixtures, so the zero correction of open and tangency is incredibly necessary. Therefore, the FCT test fixture has electrical circuit and tangency correction Settings.

    8. Once the jig is broken needle and aging are replaced needle maintenance and still use. If the fixture is broken on the far side repair and also the client changes it’s now not used, it has to be remade.

    Printed circuit assembly test fixtures are sometimes tailored for a selected product, which may effectively improve productivity and shipping quality.

    The producing method of the PCB population test fixture is as follows:

    1. Consistent with the test needs of the tested merchandise and customers, the ultimate fixture management mode ought to be hand-picked for style, and also the pressure plate, load plate, and alternative modules ought to be designed.

    2. The clamping plate or load plate within the style position should be correct, can’t let the merchandise within the test of the test plate press.

    3. The positioning of the test fixture ought to be correct and also the instrumentation tying up ought to be sleek.

    4. The test fixture can have a precise style of a box, place the test product within the within, and within the fixture, the style should keep enough area within the box, and the layout of the box should be cheap.

    5. Test fixture reserved interface position ought to be correct, sufficient, and cheap layout.

    What should be pay attentionto in doing PCBA testing?

    After the PCBA test fixture is formed, the PCBA plate and also the test fixture is positioned solely by swinging the PCBA plate into the test fixture. The accuracy of positioning is closely associated with the producing technology of the test fixture.

    To confirm the soundness and accuracy of the product, and avoid excess repair caused by the assembly method and operation methodology, PCBA makers can adopt PCBA test to resolve the matter. However, the trade additionally stressed that PCBA test isn’t a remedy, within the actual operation method, there square measure several places to concentrate to. 

    In PCBA testing, we should pay attention to the following aspects:


    What Will the PCBA Test Assembly Consist of?

    ICT test (In-Circuit Testing)

    This section principally includes circuit switching, current values, voltage, amplitude, noise, and different tests, to check if the PCB manufacturing and assembly works well.

    FCT test (Functional Testing)

    Its purpose is to test the entire PCBA circuit card once the IC program is pink-slipped, to examine if there's any downside within the code and hardware, and to equip it with the corresponding patch process fixture and test rack.

    Fatigue test

    By analyzing the sample results of the PCB fabrication and assembly that are subjected to this test, the functional operation of the PCB population boards will be understood as well as determining if there are any areas of failure. For example, if the mouse is clicked up to 100,000 times or the LEDs are turned on and off 10,000 times, the possibility of failure is tested. Thus, the above example can demonstrate that the performance of PCBA boards is fully displayed by this test.

    Harsh surroundings test

    This includes testing the circuit card beneath extreme conditions, like temperature and wetness, drop, splash, shock, etc. As a result, random samples can be obtained and the standard liability of the entire printed wiring assembly can be extrapolated.

    Aging test

    It is principally through the assembly boards as well as electronic product for a very long time to power on, and so maintain the operating state, to visualize whether or not there's a fault. it's value noting that solely once this step of testing, will be placed into the market, plant sales.

    Electronic PCB assembly test method is sophisticated and plays a crucial role within the whole production method. while not this link, the product could suffer from high failure and high repair, which is incredibly unfavorable to the event of enterprises. With the printed wiring assembly test and assembly link, enterprises will timely perceive the standard and use impact of the product, and so modify timely in step with the issues, to confirm the responsibleness of the product, and build a decent surrounding for the event of enterprises and also the institution of brands.

    What is the PCBA Test Rack?

    The principle of the electronic board assembly test stand is incredibly easy. it’s to attach the solder pad or for test purposes on the PCB board through the metal probe. once the PCB board is supercharged, the standard worths like voltage worth and current value of the test circuit will be obtained, thus on observe whether or not the test circuit is traditional.

    Printed circuit board assembly PCBA test rack production is tailor-made, in step with the necessity to test the scale of the PCB board, test purpose position, have to be compelled to test the worth of the choice. the most use of the acrylic, plastic, metal probe, monitor, and wire and equipped with a straightforward PCB circuit card to complete the entire production.

    The usage of the PCBA test rack

    Further Understanding of PCBA Testing

    PCBA Functional Test

    FCT (Functional Test) refers to a test method that provides a simulated operating environment (excitation and load) to the test target board (UUT: Unit Under Test) and makes it work in various design states to obtain the parameters of each state to verify the functionality of the UUT. In short, it is to load the UUT with suitable excitation and measure whether the output response meets the requirements. It generally refers to the functional test of circuit card assy.

    1. PCBA functional test contains the following points.

    1. Power supply test: Test whether the power supply works properly; test the voltage of each point

    2. Port (interface) test: Test whether there is a short circuit or open circuit which may cause dysfunction.

    3. The testing of special functions(different boards have different requirements for special function testing)

    2. Composition of the functional test system

    System control center

    This part is generally composed of a PC, MCU, ARM, and other small or medium-sized central processors. Its main role is to control the process of the entire test course and judge and record the test content of each step and finally draw test results. It is the core brain of the whole test system.

    Control and execution

    The control and execution part is mainly composed of I/O components. It is the induction and execution mechanism of the logical action of the test process. The functional test system uses it to build various test environments and realize test functions.

    Parameter measurement

    The measurement part is mainly composed of some board cards and instruments for measurement. It can mainly complete the acquisition of various analog or digital quantities in the test process. So sometimes we also call it the data acquisition part.

    The processing and output of data

    The test results of each step and the final test result are the purposes of our whole test. The processing and output of data are responsible for storing and outputting these results and data, which is more convenient for us to control the quality of PCBA products effectively.

    PCBA Electrical Characteristic Test

    PCBA electrical characteristic test mainly includes the following aspects.

    1. Current test: This test detects whether the circuit board has a problem with current exposure. If the current is lower than the design index, then the test is passed.

    2. Voltage test: It can test the voltage withstand capability of the circuit board by gradually increasing the voltage. If the circuit does not fail, the test is passed.

    3. Impedance test: Impedance is an important parameter for testing circuits and components, referring to the resistance of components or circuits to the passing current. Generally, the ohm meter is needed to test the impedance. If the impedance value is within the specified range, the test is passed.

    Reliability Test

    ICT test, FCT test, aging test, fatigue test, and harsh surroundings test discussed above belong to the reliability test.

    PCBA Mechanical Characteristic Test

    Pressure-withstanding test

    The purpose of the test is to check the board's ability to withstand pressure. The equipment needed is a pressure-withstanding tester.

    Salt mist test

    The purpose of the salt mist test is to check the board's corrosion resistance. The equipment needed is a salt spray tester.

    Vibration test

    The purpose of the vibration test is to detect whether the board can pass the different levels of the random vibration test. The equipment needed is a vibration meter.

    High temperature and humidity test

    The purpose of the high temperature and humidity test is to check the suitability of the circuit board in harsh conditions of high temperature and humidity. The equipment required is a constant temperature and humidity test chamber.

    Solder strength thrust test

    The purpose of the solder strength thrust test is to test whether the solder strength of the components meets the requirements. The equipment needed is a thrust meter.

    Choose Viasion for PCBA Testing

    As a PCB manufacturing and assembly manufacturer, Viasion has perpetually believed that PCA printed circuit assembly testing is important to confirm product quality. It determines product performance, controls product quality, reduces after-sales and repair rates, makes customers additionally assured, and promotes win-win cooperation between enterprises and customers. Viasion has a complete procurement, production, and quality management system, and can produce PCB assembly for customers quickly and at a low cost. At the same time, Viasion will carry out a series of testing for PCB assembly and soldering. We are your must-see choice for seeking PCB assembly manufacturing services, which can be demonstrated by the following points.

    Viasion has specialized in circuit board contract manufacturing for more than 16 years. In addition, our company is equipped with advanced production equipment and a meticulous management system.

    With the development of the Internet, the online trading platform of electronic components and components has risen rapidly. It collects the resources of domestic and foreign original factories, well-known agents and spot suppliers,Viasion is a well-qualified electronic circuit assembly manufacturer. We passed the certifications including UL, ISO9001, RoHS/REACH, etc. This also strengthens the trust of our customers in our company and demonstrates that we will supply high-quality products to our customers. and users can search and compare channels through models quickly and conveniently. According to the requirement documents, the dealer can quickly make the correct and valid quotation. And each inquiry comparison price is the most tiring and headache.

    Viasion focuses on improving the service experience of customers and has rich experience and management in all aspects of pre-sales, sales, and after-sales. When customers have questions, we will be attentive to answer and solve customers’ doubts and difficulties. During prototyping and testing, we help customers find out the unreasonable design and propose modifications. We are dedicated to addressing technical problems for customers and giving customers strong technical support, to supply our customer the best PCB assembly and soldering services.

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    Frequently Asked Questions

    As stated before, PCBA testing refers to the electrical testing on assembled circuit boards with components soldered and also includes the detection based on the input and output values.
    The principle is the printed circuit board can be tested and functionally well. So PCB functional testing is very important, but some other testing such as In-Circuit Testing, reliability testing are also helpful.

    PCB testing means the open/short test for PCB bare board, but PCBA testing means many tests for PCB assembly, mainly for functional testing.

    The functional test methods of PCBA can be divided into manual control function testing, semi-automatic control function testing, and fully automatic control function testing according to the different control modes. The earliest functional tests were mainly based on manual and semi-automatic modes.

    As mentioned above, PCBA testing helps to make sure the electronic circuit board assembly works well. These include in-circuit testing, functional testing, reliability testing, AOI inspection, X-ray, and visual inspections.