16+ Years Experience in PCB Manufacturing

  • 1-40+ layers, Rigid, Flex and Rigid-Flex
  • Impedance Control, Back drill, Heavy Copper 40 oz
  • FR4, High Speed, High Frequency, Metcal core, Ceramic, PTFE
  • Blind & Buried Vias, Micro Vias, Any-Layer HDI
  • VIPPO, Conductive & Non-Conductive via plugging
  • Backplane, Embedded Devices, IC Substrate

What is PCB Manufacturing?

We all know PCB is short for printed circuit boards. It is the green, white, or black colour circuit board we can see in every electronic device. PCB is the carrier of all kinds of electronic components, and it connects all these components by copper wires inside it.

So PCB manufacturing means the production process of a printed circuit board in a narrow sense. But in fact, manufacturing PCB boards involves a lot of knowledge in the printed circuit board industry, including the history of PCB, glossary of PCB, base laminates used in PCB, PCB board manufacturing processes, PCB acceptance standards, classifications of PCBs, the cost of PCB manufacturing service, the current situation and future of PCB boards manufacturing…etc. Here, Viasion would like to share this knowledge with you, and we hope it will be helpful to you in some way.

Viasion is a PCB manufacturing supplier in China. We focus on small to medium-volume professional PCB manufacturing with 16 years of experience. Our factory is UL-listed(E358677), ISO9001 and ISO13485 certified.

Our PCB Manufacturing Capabilities

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    Material Types:


    High TG FR4, Halogen free FR4, High Speed FR4, reinforced FR4

    Flexible material

    PI (polyimide), PET, semi-flex material


    Aluminum, Copper, Alumina Ceramic, special alloys

    Microwave & RF

    RO4350B, RO4003C, RO3003, Arlon 85N, 33N, MEGTRON 6(R-5775), TU-872 LK, Isola Tachyon 100G, ITEQ IT-968TC etc.

    Other PCB Manufacturing Capabilities
    Layers counts
    1-40 layers for mass production, up to 100 layers for prototypes
    Board thickness
    Max. board dimensions
    20*59 inch
    Max aspect ratio
    Solder mask color
    green, black, blue, red, white (normally), other colors by requirement)
    Silkscreen color
    white, black, yellow(normally), other colors by requirement)
    Outline method
    CNC Routing, v-cut, and punching
    Surface finish
    HAL, ENIG, immersion tin/silver, ENEPIG, gold finger, gold plating, selective hybrid
    Thank you very much for your attention to our printed circuit boards manufacturing capabilities. If you need one-stop PCB manufacturing and assembly services, please visit our web page about PCB manufacturing and PCB assembly.

    Why Choose Viasion for PCB Service?

    Founded in 2007, Viasion is a reliable PCB manufacturing company providing one-stop PCB manufacturing solutions in China, and we specialize in small to medium-volume production. Our company insists on being a long-term strategic partner for our customers and offers flexible and sincere service to them. Consequently, our company has gained the recognition and trust of 1000+ customers. Vision is committed to developing itself into an efficient and influential PCB manufacturing supplier in China, providing customers with the highest quality printed circuit boards at competitive prices.

    Premium Quality

    Viasion is a reliable PCB manufacturer in China. We always believe that the quality of our products is the key for our company to gain customers' trust. In our work, we insist on strictly controlling each process, pay attention to details, and devote ourselves to improving the quality of our products. What’s more, our quality control system is well developed and managed. For example, the quality of raw materials, quality control during the production process, and quality control before shipment are all included. Moreover, our team (including engineers and technicians) has extensive experience in PCB manufacturing China, ensuring that the goal of high-quality production is achieved. Our company has gained ISO:9001, ISO:13485, and UL certificates. 

    16+ Years of Experience

    Viasion is a trustworthy Chinese PCB manufacturing company with 16+ years of experience. Our sufficient experience enables us to deal with all kinds of problems and provide the best PCB manufacturing solutions for our customers. Additionally, our company has advanced equipment for production and quality testing to ensure the highest quality in the industry. It is self-evident that seeking PCB services in Viasion is a good choice.

    Competitive Pricing

    Utilize the mature supply chain in the centre of electronics in China, and also our over decades of experience in manufacturing PCB boards, and our advanced equipment, Viasion can always supply high quality printed circuit boards at competitive pricing. So Viasion is now one of the best PCB board manufacturers in China in small to medium-volume production.

    Great & Flexible Service

    Viasion is dedicated to providing customers with detailed and thoughtful pre-sales consultation, patiently answering customers' concerns, and carefully paying attention to customers' needs. We also offer thoughtful after-sales service to solve after-sales problems until customers are fully satisfied. As a result of our outstanding one-stop service, our company has won the trust and praise of our customers with our high quality professional PCB manufacturing and great services.

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    Your Trusted Partner for PCB Manufacturing China. 1-40 Layers Rigid, Flex, Rigid-Flex, HDI, Blind & Buried Vias PCBs. VIPPO, Back Drill, Edge Castellation, Edge Plating, Gold Finger. High Speed, High Frequency, RF & Microwave.

    The History of PCB Manufacturing

    Charles Ducas in the US created printed wire on an insulating substrate to replace wire connection, and later copper wire by electroplating was used which was the beginning of PCB manufacturing.
    Austrian Paul Eisler created printed circuit boards and used them in radio devices.

    Epoxy resin was used to make substrates in PCB printed circuit board manufacturing.

    The United States officially recognized the invention of the printed circuit board and used it for commercial purposes.

    Motorola developed a double-sided board with the electroplated through-hole method, which was later applied to multilayer printed circuit boards manufacturing.


    V. Dahlgren invented a flexible printed circuit board, by sticking copper foil on flexible plastic material. This starts the manufacturing of PCB with flexible material.


    Hazeline in the USA started multilayer PCB manufacturing by plating through-hole. This is a big step in the manufacturing of PCB since very complex functions can be integrated into multilayer circuit boards.


    Panasonic developed any layer drill in a multilayer DHI printed circuit board. Stacked vias are used to meet any layer connection requirement.


    Toshiba developed the b2it multilayer printed circuit board. Toshiba developed the b2it multilayer printed circuit board. Later, this technology is widely accepted in the PCB board manufacturing industry.


    New technologies such as rigid-flex, buried resistance, buried capacitance, and IC substrate are intervening in PCB manufacturing.

    Classifications of PCB Manufacturing

    With around 100 years of development, many kinds of PCBs are widely used in different electronic products and different applications. The following are some commonly admitted classifications for PCBs.

    PCB Manufacturing Processes—A Step-by-Step Guide

    PCB manufacturing is a very complex task with many steps. Here we just briefly introduce the steps for both single/double layer and multilayer PCB boards manufacturing.

    Single /double layer PCB manufacturing process:

    Multilayer layer PCB manufacturing process:

    Standards Used in PCB Manufacturing Service

    The most widely accepted standards in PCB printed circuit board manufacturing are IPC standards. We know IPC is the most famous global association specializing in the research and setting up of production and acceptable standards for printed circuit boards, wire harness, and any kind of electronic assembly. Here we just talk about the most commonly used standards related to circuit board manufacturing.

    IPC Standards
    PCB Acceptance Standards
    IPC-A-600, IPC-6012, IPC-6011, IPC-6013, IPC-6015, IPC-6018, IPC-9151, IPC-4761, IPC-9252, IPC-9641, IPC-9691, IPC-9121, IPC-DR-572, IPC-OI-645, IPC-1601, IPC-1601, IPC-1710, IPC-9151, IPC-9631
    Surface finished Standards
    IPC-4552for immersion nickel/gold, IPC-4553 for immersion silver, IPC-4554 for immersion tin, IPC-4556 for OSP, and IPC-4556 for ENEPIG
    Specification for PCB laminates
    Rigid PCB material : IPC-1730, IPC-4101, IPC-4103 Flexible PCB material: IPC-4202, IPC-FC-234, IPC-4204 & IPC-4203, HDI PCB material: IPC-JPCA-4104
    Specification for Base Cooper foil
    IPC-4562, IPC-1731, IPC-4563, IPC-CF-152

    The Difference between IPC-A-600 and IPC-6012

    We always talk about IPC Class 2 and Class 3 in our daily work. Here they refer to Class 2 and Class 3 in IPC-A-600 and IPC-6012, which are the 2 most well-known standards in circuit board manufacturing.

    IPC-A-600 is the acceptability of printed board according to IPC Class 1, 2, or 3, which is used to inspect and distinguish which kinds of defects are not acceptable, both to PCB manufacturing suppliers and to customers. There are a lot of pictures to show the difference between class 1, class 2, and class 3. IPC-6012 is the performance specification for PCB manufacturing suppliers and suggests that they should work according to IPC Class 1, 2, 3, or 3/A, which is more concerned with the production process.

    Although IPC-A-600 and IPC-6012 are different documents with different purposes in manufacturing of PCB, they have same for the definition for Class 1, 2, or 3. So we do not need to worry about the difference between them.

    The main difference between IPC Class 2 and Class 3 in PCB manufacturing

    We always talk about IPC Class 2 and Class 3. What are the main differences between them in PCB manufacturing services? Generally speaking, IPC Class 2 is the normal standard for most electronics, such as consumer electronics, industrial equipment, medical equipment, communication electronics, power and control, transportation, computer, testing, etc, while Class 3 is required for more electronics needed more reliability, such as automotive, militarily, marine aerospace, etc. Please refer to the main differences between IPC Class 2 and Class 3, we will not just copy the IPC standards, and we will compare the main differences between them using more “unprofessional” but easy-to-understand words. It would help you quickly understand the main difference between Class 2 and Class 3 in printed circuit boards manufacturing.

    Voids in PTH-Copper Plating

    Class 3–PCB manufacturingClass 2–PCB manufacturing
    • PTH holes are plated perfectly.
    •  No void in the PTH hole at all.                       
    • Max. 1 void in 1 PTH hole.
    • The void should be small.
    • Void less than 5% of the PTH hole size.
    • Max. 5% holes with voids.
    • The void is less than 90 degrees from the drill.

    Voids in PTH – Finished Coating

    Class 3–PCB manufacturingClass 2–PCB manufacturing
    • No void at all.
    • Max. 1 void in 1 hole.
    • Max. 5% holes with voids can be seen.
    • The void length is less than 5% of the hole.
    • The biggest void length is less than 5%
    • Max. 3 voids all in one hole.
    • Max. 15% holes with voids can be seen.
    • The void length is less than 10% of the hole.
    • The biggest void length is less than 5%

    Etched Marking(components notation)

    Class 3–PCB manufacturingClass 2–PCB manufacturing
    • Etched marks are clear
    • Etched marks are a little blurry, but they can be recognized.
    • Etched marks have no affection for other copper traces.
    • Etched marks are not clear, but they can be recognized. 
    • If there is any part missing, not exceed 50% of the character.
    • Etched marks have no affection for other copper traces.

    Soda Strawing (the gap between the solder mask and base material)

    Class 3–PCB manufacturingClass 2–PCB manufacturing
    • Solder mask connected with the base material is in good condition. 
    • There is no gap between the solder mask and the base material.
    • The copper width keeps the same.
    • Copper trace is covered by solder mask, and no solder mask peels off.

    Conductor (copper trace) Spacing

    Class 3–PCB manufacturingClass 2–PCB manufacturing
    • Copper trace width is the same as the design.
    • Extra copper is less than 20% of the total copper trace width.
    • Max. extra copper is less than 30% of the total copper trace width.

    Out layer Annular Ring-Supported Holes

    Class 3–PCB manufacturingClass 2–PCB manufacturing
    • Holes in the center of the pads.
    • The minimum ring size is 0.05mm.
    • No ring breakout.
    • Ring breakout less than 90 degrees.

    Out layer Annular Ring-Unsupported Holes

    Class 3–PCB manufacturingClass 2–PCB manufacturing
    • Drill in the center of the pads.
    • The minimum ring size is 0.15mm.
    • No ring breakout.
    • Ring breakout is less than 90 degrees.

    Surface Conductor Thickness (base and plating)

    Class 3–PCB manufacturingClass 2–PCB manufacturing
    • Min. Copper plating is 20um.
    • Min. Copper plating is 25um.

    Wicking (plating residue)

    Class 3–PCB manufacturingClass 2–PCB manufacturing
    • No wicking (plating residue) when we make cross sections.
    • If there is any wicking, the max. size is 80um.
    • No wicking (plating residue) when we make cross sections.
    • If there is any wicking, the max. size is 100um.

    Solder Residue

    Class 3–PCB manufacturingClass 2–PCB manufacturing
    • Max. Solder residue under the cover is 0.1mm.
    • No solder wicking (residue) at the bendable parts.
    • No effect on the copper trace or function.
    • Max. Solder residue under the cover is 0.3mm.
    • No solder wicking (residue) at the bendable parts.
    • No effect on the copper trace or function.

    Besides IPC Class 2 and Class 3, there is IPC Class 1 as as well in manufacturing of PCB. IPC Class 1 is usually for very low-end applications. In Viasion, we always manufacture PCBs according to IPC Class 2 and Class 3.

    There is a 4th-grade IPC standard in PCB manufacturing services that is not so familiar to most people. It is Class 3/A. Class 3/A is a standard higher than Class 3, which is applied to extremely high-reliability products, such as military and/or space avionics. The biggest difference is that the copper plating needs to be 37um at least, since Class 3 need 25um, and Class 3/A need 12um more than Class 3.

    Of course, there are more differences between Class 3 and Class 3/A in circuit board manufacturing. If you are interested in more details about Class 3/A, please check the details in Appendix A and Appendix B in 6012C. Or you may contact us for any questions; we have 16 years of experience in PCB manufacturing China. 

    The Main Factors Which Affect PCB Manufacturing Cost

    PCBs are custom-made by PCB manufacturing supplier. So the cost of every PCB may be different. But we can quote the price anyhow. So what are the main factors which affect PCB manufacturing cost? Please refer to the following details:

    Base material types

    This is one of the most important factors since different types of PCB materials have different price levels, and different companies that produce the same type of PCB material may also have a big price difference. Taking the example of FR4, the most common PCB material, its cost may be around 30 USD per square meter, but the cost of high-frequency material may be 10 times higher than that of FR4 material. Normal polyimide material for flexible PCB may be around 50 USD per square meter, but polyimide material from Dupont (the most advanced polyimide material manufacturer) may be 2-5 times higher. So it is very important to specify the material type in the Gerber files and specifications to a PCB manufacturing supplier.

    PCB dissensions

    Bigger PCB dissensions mean more material is needed in manufacturing of PCB, so the price is more expensive. In Viasion, our engineer always tries to give you the best advice for PCB panels, to get the best usage rate in PCB board manufacturing service to save your cost.

    PCB layer counts

    More layer counts mean more material needed and more production processes in circuit board manufacturing, then the cost is higher. So please use lower layer counts if possible to reduce PCB manufacturing cost.

    Copper thickness

    The thicker the copper thickness, the higher the cost in PCB boards manufacturing. Normal copper thickness is 0.5-1oz, so there will be a price increase for copper thickness of more than 1oz. If the copper thickness is more than 3oz (105um), the PCB manufacturing cost will increase a lot. So it is better to ask a PCB manufacturing company to quote the price.

    PCB thickness

    The thicker the overall PCB thickness, the higher the cost. Normal PCB overall thickness is 1.6mm, so there will be a price increase for a PCB thickness of more than 1.6mm. Yet the cost for ultra-thin (such as 0.15mm FR4 PCB) rigid PCB is more expensive than normal 1.6mm PCB because the ultra-thin rigid PB is very difficult to produce. So, in PCB design, it is better to use standard board thickness (0.8 to 2.0mm) to save PCB manufacturing cost.

    Layup structure

    It is better to use a normal structure in multilayer PCBs since a special layup structure may lead to extra costs in circuit board manufacturing. For example, some engineers design extremely thick dielectrics which need to be achieved by piling several prepregs together. Extra prepreg means extra cost, and sometimes we even need to add an unclad FR4 material in it, which will increase a lot of costs in PCB manufacturing.

    Blind/Buried vias

    Blind and buried vias mean PCB manufacturing processes are much more complicated than normal PTH vias, and more advanced equipment is required as well. So the PCB manufacturing cost for HDI circuit board is much more expensive than normal PCBs with only PTH holes.

    Surface finishes

    Different surface finishes have different costs. The cheapest ones are HAL and OSP, and ENIG. The immersion silver, tin, and ENEPIG are more expensive. But the most expensive one is hard gold plating with a gold thickness of around 0.1-3um. It is not hard to understand the PCB manufacturing cost of hard gold plating is very expensive since it is “real gold” which is plated on the PCB.

    Special technology or requirement

    Special technology such as countersink holes, back drills, and impedance may also affect the PCB manufacturing cost, so it is better to send us Gerber for a free quote.

    How to Choose A Premium Quality PCB Manufacturing Supplier?

    PCB is so important for electronic products, so choosing a reliable PCB manufacturing supplier is very important. When we need a new PCB manufacturing supplier, we may be able to get references from other companies or friends, we may search from B2B websites or google search, or we even receive e-mails or phone calls from PCB suppliers. We can get so many PCB manufacturers in the world easily, but how to distinguish and find a reliable one? Here are some of the most important characteristics of a reliable PCB manufacturing company.

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    The Current Situation in PCB Manufacturing

    During more than 100 years of development, PCB manufacturing technology is more and more advanced. Here we would like to discuss the current situation about PCB manufacturing, such as the main countries/areas for PCB manufacturing, the top 10 leading printed circuit board manufacturers China and in the world, and also the main supply of PCBs.

    Main countries/areas for PCB manufacturing

    From 2015 to 2021, the global top 100 PCB manufacturing suppliers are located in Asian companies, such as the Chinese mainland, Taiwan, China, Japan, and South Korea. The overall revenue of these countries takes around 93% of the total revenue in the global PCB industry.

    In 2021, the detailed figures are Chinese Taiwan: 35%, China mainland: 28%, Japan: 18%, and South Korea: 12 % and the rest of 7% are produced in other countries. Among them, China PCB manufacturing is increasing steadily.

    Top 10 PCB Manufacturing Suppliers in the World

    Company Name Revenue (Billion USD) Country
    Chinese Taiwan
    Chinese Taiwan
    Chinese mainland
    Nippon Mektron
    Chinese Taiwan
    Chinese Taiwan
    Shennan Circuits
    China Mainland
    Chinese Taiwan

    Top 10 PCB PCB Manufacturing Suppliers in China’s mainland

    Company Name Revenue (Billion USD)
    Shennan Circuits
    Kinwang Electronics
    Victory Giant
    Shenzhen Fastprint
    Wuzhou Electronics

    Main applications of PCB manufacturing

    PCBs are used in almost every aspect of electronics. But the main applications are the communication industry, computer industry, industrial control, medical, automation, testing, automotive electronics, and consumer electronics.

    Besides, accompanied by the development of new technology, PCB boards manufacturing in 5G, the internet of things, cloud storage, robotics, etc. will develop rapidly. 

    Future of PCB Manufacturing

    We all know that PCB is a carrier of electronic components, to combine electronic parts and achieve electronic functions. So PCB manufacturing is very important and unable to be replaced. Accompanying the expansion of 5G network construction, AI(artificial intelligence), wearable electronics, big data, new energy cars, industry 4.0, IoT(Internet of things), etc., there will be significant growth in the PCB manufacturing industry.

    PCB manufacturing increased by 20% percent in 2021 and reached an $80 billion annual turnover globally. We expect there will be a 5% increase at least from 2022 to 2026, then the annual turnover will exceed $80 billion in 2026. And PCB manufacturing China will also increase greatly.

    At the same time, it should be noted that with the development of high-tech electronic products, the growth of high-tech circuit boards will be faster, such as rigid-flex PCBs, HDI PCBs, IC substrate PCBs, etc. This requires the printed circuit board manufacturers to invest in more equipment and capital.

    Based on China's mature industry chain and a wide range of customer groups at home and abroad, China will continue to be the main country of global PCB manufacturing in the next few years and may continue to develop at a level higher than the overall global growth rate, making contributions to the development of electronics in the world.

    Main Glossary for PCB Manufacturing

    To understand printed circuit boards and manufacturing of PCB, we should know the words and definitions first, i.e. the PCB glossary. There may be more than 1000 words and definitions for PCB printed circuit board manufacturing totally which is not necessary to list here. We just want to discuss with you a few words which are used frequently in PCB manufacturing services.

    Basic Glossary About PCB

    The full name of PCB is printed circuit board, which is used to connect and combine all the electronic components, to achieve the electronic function of an electronic product. There are some other names for PCB, such as printed wiring board, circuit board, printed circuit, electronic PCB, PCB bare board, PCB board, electronic board, etc.
    The layer is the copper layer, which is the copper wire layer used to connect the electronic components. Layer count can be as low as 1 layer, and as high as more than 100 layers. But most PCBs are between 1 layer to 10 layers.
    Copper trace should be placed on electrically insulating material, to avoid short between 2 copper layers. We call the electrically insulating material dielectric. There should be a dielectric layer between every copper layer in PCB board manufacturing, and the thickness is normally between 0.1mm to 1mm. But for high-density micro via PCBs, the dielectric can be as less as 0.05mm.
    There is a trace/conductor in each copper layer. The trace/conductor is used to connect the electronic parts and meet electronic functions. It is the most important element in PCB manufacturing service.
    It is the hole on the PCB. Normally the hole is round, but can also be a rectangle or other shapes. There are plating drills and non-plated drills. And the drill size is around 0.1-6.5mm normally. The tolerance is normally +/-0.05mm for NPTH, and +/-0.05mm for PTH. But for press-fit PTH holes, the tolerance is always +/-0.05mm, then we should pay special attention to PCB board manufacturing.
    PTH is short for plated through a hole. It is the hole that is drilled from the top layer to the bottom layer and then plated with copper. PTH is always used to connect the top layer of copper to the bottom layer of copper, or the inner layer of copper if it is a multilayer PCB. PTH holes are also used to plug and solder PTH electronic components. PTH plating is critical in manufacturing PCB boards.
    NPTH is short for non-plated through a hole. It is the hole that is drilled from the top layer to the bottom layer, without plated copper compared with the PTH hole. NPTH has no electronic function. It is usually used to mount a screw in the hole to fasten the PCBs on the enclosure.
    Vias are another kind of PTH. They have an electronic function, but they are not used for assembling components in them. So the size of vias is normally small, around 0.2-0.5mm. Except plated through vias, there are also blind vias and buried vias, stacked and staggered vias in HDI PCB manufacturing.
    The pad is a copper pad that is used to assemble SMT components. These pads are not covered by a solder mask in PCB board manufacturing. There are pads in the inner layer as well.
    Out layer
    Out layers are the layers on the surface of a PCB. Normally they are the top layer and bottom layers. For single-layer PCBs, there is only one out layer.
    Inner layer
    The copper layers are buried inside the PCB. Normally we can not see these layers by eye. There are no inner layers on double-sided PCB. 4 layer PCB has two inner layers, and 6-layer PCB has four inner layers.
    Copper thickness
    It refers to the thickness of the copper trace. Normally the copper trace is 0.5 to 2.0mm, and most of them are 1oz. Different copper thicknesses are designed to meet different requirements. Normal 0.5-1oz copper is used to transmit signals, and heavy copper of more than 2oz is always used for high-power PCBs. But extremely heavy copper can be up to 20oz to meet extremely high currency requirements. A lot of experience and techniques are needed in extremely heavy copper PCB manufacturing service.
    PCB thickness
    It refers to the overall thickness of the printed circuit board. The PCB thickness may vary from 0.1mm to 10mm, but most PCBs have a thickness of 1.6mm. The tolerance of PCB thickness is normally +/-10% if the overall thickness is less than 1.6mm, otherwise, the tolerance should be less than 0.2mm. In some cases, the PCB thickness is quite critical because of the tight casing structure.
    Solder mask
    Solder mask is the material used to cover the copper trace to avoid oxidation. The color of the solder mask is green on most PCBs, but the color can be different, such as white, black, yellow, red, green, purple, etc. LED PCBs are always white for good reflection purposes.
    Silkscreen/component notation
    Silkscreen is the word printed on the PCBs. We also call it components notation which is usually used to help the users to know what components should be used. But also it is helpful for users to identify each component. The color is always white normally. But there are also other colors, such as black, yellow, green, etc.
    Surface finish /surface treatment
    It is also called surface treatment. When PCBs are almost finished, some pads are free of solder masks, which are used to assemble electronic components on them. But bare copper will be oxidative in a few days. So we need to use some elements to cover the pads at the same time. Nowadays, the most widely used surface finish is HAL (hot-level tin) and immersion gold. But a few others are also popular, such as OSP, immersion, silver, immersion tin, gold plating, ENEPIG, etc.
    Tooling hole
    The tooling hole is the hole used to fix the PCB on the PCB manufacturing equipment. Tooling holes are normally added by the PCB manufacturing supplier on the rail of the waste frame, rather than in the circuit board to avoid effects on the PCB.
    It also means profiling. In PCB factories, the engineer always puts several PCBs in a panel(with the size of 18*24” normally) which is suitable for production equipment. When the PCBs are finished, we use a routing bit to cut off the single PCBs. The main advantage of routing is that the edge of the outline is very smooth. This is the most widely used method in PCB manufacturing service.
    Punching is another method used to cut the finished panels into single pieces. A very heavy punching machine and punching mold are needed in circuit board manufacturing. The punching cost for every single PCB is cheaper than routing and the speed is very quick. But the problem is: punching stress may damage copper trace, so punching is only for single layer PCB, CEM1 PCBs, not suitable for multilayer or high technology PCB.
    V-cut is called v-grove. For some rectangle PCBs, the engineer puts several PCBs together and uses the v-grove to cut half of the base material. The electronics manufacturer can break off the panel and get a single PCB after assembly.

    About PCB Base Material

    Copper-clad laminate (also called CCL)
    It is the base PCB material we use in manufacturing of PCB. Normally it is base dielectric covered by 1 side or 2 sides of copper. We call it FR4 CCL if the material is FR4, and polyimide CCL if the material is polyimide. The CCL will be supplied to PCB manufacturing suppliers in different dimensions according to the characteristic of different materials. For example, FR4 and aluminum material are always supplied as36*48 big sheets, flexible CCL are always supplied in a roll with a width of 250mm.
    Metal-based material
    The metal-clad base material is different from normal copper-clad laminate. The structure of a copper-clad laminate is copper sheet – dielectric – copper sheet. But metal-clad are different. We take 1 copper layer aluminum base material as an example. The bottom layer is the aluminum base; the middle layer is thermal conductivity dielectric; the top layer is the copper sheet.
    Core material
    The core material is the base material used in manufacturing of PCB with muitilayers. It contains a base dielectric and 2 copper sheets on the top and bottom sides. For 4 layers, the structure is top layer–dielectric—middle layer 1–core material–middle layer 2–dielectric–bottom layer.
    Prepreg is the dielectric used in multilayer lamination. Normally 1 to 3 piles of prepreg should be used between 2 copper layers in circuit board manufacturing, since there may be sliding problems if more than 3 piles of prepreg are used. Usually there are 4 kinds of thickness in normal PCB boards manufacturing:106(0.095mm), 1080(0.085mm), 2116(0.115mm), 7628(0.185mm).
    Film adhesive
    It is used to glue the cover layer on the flexible PCB or glue several cores together in multilayer flexible circuit board manufacturing. And the adhesive material could be polyester, acrylic, modified epoxy, or butyral phenolic.
    The cover layer (cover lay)
    It is the layer glued on the top or bottom side of a flexible PCB or flexible part of a rigid-flex PCB, to cover and protect the parts without a copper pad in PCB printed circuit board manufacturing. It is the same function as a solder mask for rigid PCB. But the main difference is that the cover layer is flexible. The cover layer for flexible PCB is always made of polyimide material.
    Stiffener material
    Stiffeners are always adhered to on the bottom of flexible PCB to make a certain part to be rigid, easier for assembly, or better to be used in the final product. The material can be FR4, CEM3, metal, etc. In most cases, the stiffener material is FR4, since it is cost-effective.
    FR4 is the most commonly used PCB substrate because of its excellent performance in electrical resistance, mechanical stability, thermal properties, and other parameters. FR4 material meets the UL 94V-0 standard. It is widely used in consumer electronics, computer, and peripheral equipment, server, and storage, telecommunication, industrial and control, automotive, etc.
    PI (polyimide)
    PI is short for polyimide. It refers to polyimide woven glass fabric copper-clad laminates which are always used for flexible PCBs. The main characteristic is PI material can be bent one time or thousands of times. So it is commonly used for flexible PCB and rigid-flex PCB.
    Ceramic material
    Ceramic material means PCB materials made of ceramic or reinforced ceramic, or ceramic hybrid material, which is normally used for high-frequency PCBs.
    PTFE material is also called Teflon material. It has good chemical stability, corrosion resistance, and high and low-temperature resistance, with extremely high TG such as TG250 or above. Arlon 85N and ARLON 33N are all PTFE materials.

    About PCB Manufacturing Technology

    Countersink holes are usually used to fit the screw head on the printed circuit board. These kinds of drills are done 2 times in manufacturing of PCB. The first drill is a tough hole and the drill is a large hole with controlled depth.
    Peelable mask
    It is a kind of material printed on the PCB bare board, to avoid solder on these pads/holes during the circuit board assembly process since these pads/holes need to be free of solder masks or need to be soldered later.
    Carbon ink
    Carbon ink is always printed on the pads with push button pads since this conductive ink has good conductivity and is also durable. Sometimes certain impedance value is needed in carbon ink printing, and the customer should notify the printed circuit board manufacturers in advance.
    Gold connectors
    We also call them gold fingers which always need to be plated with thick gold around 0.254um to 1.27um. It is usually used as the edge connector to plug the PCB into a socket.
    Blind via
    Blind via is the via from the top or bottom layer to the inner layers. Blind vias can be done by mechanical or laser. We take a 6-layer PCB as an example. Blind vias can be located in: layers 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 6-5, 6-4, 6-3, and 6-2.
    Buried via
    Buried via is the via buried between top or bottom layers, so we cannot see buried vias by eye. Buried vias can be done by mechanical or laser as well. If we take a 6-layer PCB as an example, buried vias can be located in: layers 2-5, 2-4, 2-3, 3-5,3-4, and 4-5.
    HDI is short for high-density interconnection. It develops from the blind or buried vias. Normally HDI PCBs have very fine lines (less than 0.1mm) and blind/buried vias. Laser-drilled micro vias are also very common in HDI PCBs. HDI is a more advanced technology in PCB board manufacturing.
    Stacked via
    For HDI PCBs, one via is sitting exactly on top of another via, to achieve electronic connection purposes. For example, if the via between layers 1-2 is sitting exactly on the via between layers 2-3, then the copper trace/pad on layer 1 can connect with the copper trace/pad on layer 3. Stacked vias are very common in HDI PCBs.
    Staggered via
    Staggered vias are very similar to stacked vias. They are also used to connect the copper layers which are not adjacent to each other. The difference is that staggered vias are not sitting exactly on top of other vias.
    Any layer inner via hole (alivh)
    It means there are vias between every 2 layers. Of course, we are talking about multilayer PCBs. Any layer is the ultimate type of blind/buried vias. We take an 8-layer PCB as an example. There are vias from layers 1-2, layers 2-3, layers 3-4, layers 4-5, layers 5-6, layers 6-7, layers 7-8, and then any of 2 layers can be connected by stacked vias or staggered vias.
    Back drill
    A back drill is a special type of controlled depth drill used in multilayer PCBs. The purpose is to remove the extra part of PTH copper to get better signal integrity. We take a 10-layer PCB as an example. If we need to make a back drill from layer 10 to layer 8, then we need to drill from layer 10 and stop between the dielectric between layer 8 to layer 7. The dielectric should be thick enough to avoid damage to layer 7.
    It is the via exactly on the pad. Because of limitations to the dimension of the PCBs, the PCB designer had to design the via in the pad, which is very normal for high-density PCBs (HDI PCBs). Vias-in-pad always need to be plugged with epoxy or metal, and then over-plated. Otherwise, there will be a potential risk of failure PCB manufacturing.
    RF microwave
    RF microwave means radio frequency microwave. Here frequency means the frequency of radio waves, also the alternating current carrying radio signals. Normally we regard it as radio frequency if the frequency is around 5kHz to 300 GHz, and microwave means the electromagnetic wave with a wavelength between infrared ray and radio wave. Normally we regard it as microwave if the wavelength is around 1 meter to 1mm.
    Via plug
    It means the vias (always small size PTH) are plugged by a certain material, such as solder mask ink, epoxy, copper, silver paste, etc. Normal vias can be plugged by solder mask ink, but via in pad always need to be plugged by epoxy or copper and over-plated. Via plug is also very important for PCB manufacturing.
    Heavy copper
    Heavy copper means very thick copper. Most PCBs are produced from 1oz (35um) copper. But some PCBs need extremely thick copper to withstand high currency. The maximum copper thickness we can do in Viasion is 20oz (700um).
    Impedance means the effect of the reactance and resistance when the signal is passing through a PCB trace. The most usually controlled impedance for PCBs is single-ended impedance and differential impedance. The impedance volume is related to the material Er, copper thickness, and dielectric thickness. In PCB manufacturing, a coupon is always needed on each production panel to test the real impedance value. The impedance tolerance is +/-10% normally but may be as low as +-/5% for high-frequency PCBs. Impedance control is very critical for RF and microwave PCB board manufacturing.
    Being flexible means being bendable. Unlike rigid material, flexible material can be bent a few times or thousands of times. Flexible materials are always used on electronic products which need lightweight or moving parts, such as cellphones, earphones, laptops, cameras, etc. Flexible PCB manufacturing is developing quickly because of the development of wearable electronics.
    Rigid flexible
    It means both rigid parts and flexible parts are combined into one product. The main advantage of rigid-flex PCB is that we can achieve both high component density requirements and movable requirements on one PCB. Rigid-flex PCBs are always used in high-tech equipment, such as medical parts, industry, aviation, military products, etc. Rigid flexible PCB manufacturing is a very high-tech area in PCB PCB production.
    A backplane means a motherboard that can carry daughterboards by sockets. Back planes are usually made with high speed and high TG FR4 material, with high layer counts of 24 layers or more, and the PCB dimensions are usually very large. A lot of IC chips will be mounted on the backplane PCB, including main processors and memory devices. Press fit technology is usually used in backplane PCB manufacturing to get better signal integrity. So the cost for a backplane PCB is very expensive. Of course, quality is extremely important in backplane PCB manufacturing.

    As one of the most trustful printed circuit board manufacturers in China, we specialize in supplying small to medium batch PCBs since 2007, and we are very confident that we can supply you with the best PCB manufacturing solutions at the lowest possible price. We are looking forward to hearing from you soon.

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    Viasion Technology is your trusted partner & one-stop shop for PCB fabrication, components sourcing, PCB assembly and electronic manufacturing. With more than 16 years of experience, we have been supplying high-quality PCBs with competitive pricing for 1000+ customers worldwide. Our company is ISO9001:2015 Certified & UL Listed, and all our products are 100% E-tested and inspected by AOI & X-RAY to meet the highest industry standards. So please get an instant quote from our sales team now, and we will take care of the rest.

    Frequently Asked Questions

    Definitely “Yes”. The PCBs will be manufactured under the appliance of IPC-A-600 Class 2 and 3 standards, UL standards, customers’ standards, ISO9001:2015, and RoHS standards.

    The following information is required for getting a quote for printed circuit boards manufacturing.
    PCB files or Gerber files;
    The thickness of the board;
    The layers of the printed circuit boards;
    The color of the solder mask;
    The color of the silkscreen;
    Requirements for surface finish;
    Whether vias are covered with solder mask;
    The thickness of copper foil;
    The number of the printed circuit boards;
    Other special requirements.

    Whenever you want to contact us and send inquiries, you can send emails or make phone calls to our sales representatives. Their contact information is listed on our official website: https://www.viasion.com/contact-us/. Welcome to contact us!

    If you have a problem in manufacturing PCB, by sending emails or making phone calls, you can contact our sales staff who will serve you cordially. We are looking forward to serving you.

    IPC Class-III means the standards for PCB products with continuous performance and on-demand performance. IPC Class-III is required for electronics that need more reliability, such as automotive, military, marine aerospace, etc. Without IPC Class-III, these products can’t become highly reliable.

    Yes, it should be noted that cancellation of orders before production is free of charge. However, if the customer cancels the order after our company has already started production of the PCBs, the customer will be liable under the terms and conditions.

    You can use the following payment methods at Viaison.
    Wire transfer to our bank.
    PayPal (Viasion’s Paypal account: Viasion@viasion.com )
    Other methods by discussion

    The lead time of printed circuit boards manufacturing is counted from the date of order placement.

    As mentioned before, we can manufacture different types of PCB including:
    Rigid PCB
    Flexible PCB
    Rigid flexible PCB
    Blind viasion, buried vias, staggered vias, stacked vias
    i+N+i structure HDI, Any-Layer HDI
    Via in Pad, including VIPPO
    Vias plugged by solder mask, epoxy, copper, etc.
    Backplane, back drill
    Aluminum base PCB
    Copper base PCB
    RF Microwave
    High frequency
    High speed
    Impedance Control
    Extreme Copper up to 20 oz
    PCBs with IC Substrate

    Viasion Technology is a PCB manufacturing company in Shenzhen, China. Shenzhen is an influential international city and a leading centre of science and technology innovation. Shenzhen has an excellent modern industrial cluster, an efficient innovative manufacturing system, and a manufacturing base with very wide coverage. Taking the city’s distinct regional advantages into consideration, our company chooses to be located here to provide products and services for our customers around the world.

    We are committed to serving customers around the world. At present, our customers mainly come from Europe, the United States, Canada, Australia, and other regions.

    Generally speaking, the files sent by our customers are crucial to our production. But in some special cases where the customer does not have computer files of the design, we have a solution. It is suggested that the customer can send the original printed circuit board to our company; we copy the board and then carry out the fabrication.

    In Viasion, the maximum board dimension is 21×59 inches, and the minimum is 0.1×0.1 inches. But our production capabilities are always improving year by year, so please contact our sales team when you have any printed circuit boards manufacturing needs.

    In Viasion, we will conduct reliability tests and inspections for manufacturing PCB by the following means.
    Electrical  Open and Short Test
    Automated Optical Inspection
    Visual Defects Inspection
    Dimensional Inspection
    Solderability Test
    Thermal Test
    Tape Test
    Peel Test
    Impedance Test
    Ionic Contamination Test
    Inspection according to IPC-A-600 Class 2 and IPC Class 3

    Viasion passed the evaluation of the quality certifications for PCB manufacturing listed below.
    ISO 9001:2015
    ISO 13485:2016
    ISO 14001:2015
    UL E358677
    IPC-A-600 Class 2 and 3

    Please communicate with our sales staff if you have any concerns about your order. They will give you timely feedback on the status of your order. In addition, after shipping the products, our sales staff will send you the tracking number so that you can check the logistics information of your products.

    It is vital to take the following approaches to maintain the budget for PCB manufacturing services in Viasion.
    1) Control the purchase cost of raw materials
    2) Reduce the consumption of material and energy; increase productivity
    3)Improve utilization of the manufacturing facilities, shorten the production cycle and reduce inventory
    4)Eliminate waste
    Waste in the process
    Waste from inventory
    Waste caused by manufacturing defective products

    There is no minimum order quantity for PCB manufacturing in Viasion. By the way, Viasion focuses on low-volume to medium-volume PCBA service. Yet prototype PCB and mass production services are also offered.

    Yes, a warranty is included in our PCB manufacturing service. The specific quality guarantee is determined by the terms and conditions.

    We can consider providing free samples after an agreement has been reached on all aspects. For specific details, please contact our sales representatives. They will keep you informed of certain terms and conditions.

    Please contact our sales team to get a quick quote by sending emails to get a quick quote of manufacturing PCB. Their contact information (phone number and email address) is listed on our official website: https://www.viasion.com/contact-us/. Generally, the customer can get the quote in no more than one day. The quickest quote for PCB manufacturing may just take one hour. Welcome to ask us for a quote!

    The PCB break-away is mainly used to assist the PCBA assembly production. Nowadays, SMT production lines are very highly automated, and PCBs are transported by conveyor belts and chains. The main purpose of the break-away in PCB manufacturing is to facilitate the transport of PCBs by conveyor belts and chains.

    In addition, there are other roles for the PCB break-away.
    Tooling holes can be placed on the PCB break-away. They are capable of locating the printed circuit boards during the ICT or FVT testing to prevent the needle bed from being out of alignment with test points.
    The existence of the PCB break-away can facilitate the sensors of the SMT production line to detect the location of the printed circuit boards, ensuring that the machine only mounts components on just a piece of the board at a time.
    The fiducial marks of the single-sided PCB can be placed in the PCB break-away because the limited space within the single-sided PCB is not enough to place too many fiducial marks.

    The most important factors for professional PCB manufacturing are: experienced engineering team, skilled workers in production, advanced equipment and good administration.

    China PCB manufacturing is increasing dramatically year by year. With the technological development of PCB board manufacturing in China during the last two decades, China can supply a wide range of circuit boards with good quality and competitive pricing, including standard FR-4 PCBs, HDI PCBs, rigid-flex PCBs., etc.