PCB Assembly Tests & Inspections
To make sure the highest quality products to our customers, we will implement a lot of testings and inspections during our production processes or after PCB assembly are finished. Here are the main tests & inspections we have done.
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IQC (Incoming Quality Inspection)
IQC (Incoming Quality Inspection) is a crucial step in the PCB assembly process. IQC involves thoroughly inspecting each component, including physical characteristics (size, shape, colour, texture, silkscreen etc.) and electrical properties such as resistance, capacitance, power, brightness etc. It guarantees that all parts used in the assembly are of high quality and conform to the required specifications, which helps to minimize any potential defects or issues caused by faulty components during production. In addition to checking for defects, IQC also allows manufacturers to lower the risk of counterfeit or substandard components entering the supply chain.
By implementing a strict IQC process, as a PCB assembly manufacturers, we can guarantee that all components used in their products are of the highest quality and will meet customer expectations. Then we can make sure our products will be reliable and safe for our end users.
Manual Visual Inspection
Although we will do 100% electronic test for our PCB bare board, 100% Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) for components accuracy, X-ray Inspection for BGA soldering, ICT (In Circuit Test) for electricity connection and FCT (Functional testing) as per customers’ requirement, manual visual inspection is also necessary. Because there may some minor visual defects which cannot be found by any of these equipment.
The manual visual inspection process usually consists of inspecting components, soldering joints, PCB assembly integrity, surface finish and overall appearance. At the same time, it also helps identify issues such as shorts, opens, misplaced components, incorrect orientations or missing parts.
This method provides an economical solution for verifying quality standards in PCB assemblies with quick turn low-volume production requirements. To perform manual visual inspection, very experienced personnel are needed, with With proper training and knowledge about visual inspection techniques.
Manual Visual Inspection is essential to ensure high-quality products before shipping them out to customers. Validating PCB assemblies’ quality and accuracy can minimize costly defects and reduce warranty claims in the long run. Furthermore, it can also help streamline production processes and lower costs associated with rework or scrap materials.
AOI (Automated Optical Inspection)
AOI systems utilize high-resolution cameras and specialized software to pinpoint any problems or discrepancies in the manufacturing process quickly.
Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) is a highly advanced technology used in the PCB assembly process to check defects and errors in components placements. It can be used for 2D and 3D inspection of components correction, solder joint interconnections. AOI technology can also detect more subtle anomalies such as solder joints defects , misalignments, missing components etc. In addition,
AOI can be used for both surface mount PCBs and through-hole PCBs, allowing manufacturers to ensure the consistent quality of their output regardless of PCB design.
AOI also enables manufacturers to cut their overall costs by eliminating costly rework operations caused by incorrect component placement or soldering issues. With its speed and accuracy, AOI has become an invaluable tool for PCB assembly processes worldwide. It is quickly becoming one of the most powerful technologies for realizing high yield and quality control in PCB assembly manufacturing.
In Viasion, we make sure 100% Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) impelmented on all our PCB assembly, so we are confident that our PCBs are assembled correctly as the BOM list before they are shipped out to our customers.
X-ray Inspection does not require any physical contact with the board or its components, making it a non-intrusive testing method that can be used on complicated PCBs and PCB assembly. X-ray Inspection is an advanced automated optical inspection (AOI) technique used to inspect inner solder joints in PCB assembly. X-ray Inspection utilizes X-rays to scan PCBs, allowing for detailed and accurate views of the board’s internal wire/solder joint connections. This imaging will enable defects in solder joints, vias, and other features to be identified quickly and easily.
With its non-contact and high-resolution capabilities, X-ray Inspection is the go-to automated optical inspection technique for verifying the quality of the inner connections under the surface of PCB and PCB assemblies. In Viasion, we will do X-ra inspection to inspect the solder joints of special components such as BGA and flip chip.
Weather it is electronic test for open/short, or Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) for components accuracy, or ICT (In Circuit Test) for electricity connection, or FCT (Functional testing), we can see and contact the PCB surface or solder joints. But for some special components such as BGA and flip chip, we can not see the solder joints buy our naked eye, then we need to use X-ray to check the inner connection of the solder joint.
ICT (In Circuit Test)
ICT (In Circuit Test) is an integral part of the PCB assembly process, as it helps to ensure that the board functions correctly and meets all quality standards. ICT testing allows for a comprehensive evaluation of each component on the board, including resistors, capacitors, transistors, and integrated circuits. In addition, this type of testing can detect any short circuits or open connections between components which may cause failure in operation.
ICT is an effective and reliable way to ensure that PCBs are correctly assembled and able to perform as expected. It can help eliminate the potential for costly errors while assisting manufacturers in maintaining high levels of quality control.
FCT (Functional test)
FCT involves testing a circuit board for functionality by simulating its expected use in real-world conditions, which helps identify potential issues before it enters production. With proper implementation, FCT can facilitate the production of high-quality products that meet customer expectations while reducing production delays and return costs.
The functional test of PCB assembly, or FCT, is an essential part of the manufacturing process. With its help, it’s easier to ensure that each PCB assembly meets the performance requirements set by its design. By investing in a comprehensive FCT testing strategy, manufacturers can have confidence that their products are of the highest quality and meet all customer requirements.
But there are still two issuse for FCT. Firstly, some customers or some projects do need to do FCT because the quantity is small or the PCBs are very easy; secondly, FCT can not simulate and test all the functions of the PCBs/components. But anyhow, FCT is very helpful to supply guarantees that each circuit board assembly satisfies the specified design and performance requirements before it is delivered to customers.
FAI (First Article Inspection)
FAI is examining PCB assemblies and comparing them to customer requirements by using first article testing equipment to check if all the components parameters are correct as the BOM list.During FAI, each component of a PCB assembly will be thoroughly inspected for accuracy, completeness, compatibility, fitment and function, including checking for missing or incorrect parts and verifying electrical performance, such as continuity testing and measuring resistance values.
FAI helps ensure that products meet design specifications, which can reduce product defects and save time and money in the long run. It helps PCB assembly manufacturers to eliminate any potential defects that could lead to future failures in mass production, thus reducing risk and cost for their customers.
FAI (First Article Inspection) is essential in the PCB assembly process. It is a quality assurance method to verify that all components have been correctly assembled and functioning as intended before further production occurs. By conducting an FAI, PCB manufacturers can also ensure that their PCBs meet industry standards such as IPC-A-610 and J-STD-001.
Reliability tests are conducted to test the stability and durability of assemblies, the compatibility of different components, and the overall performance of a PCB assembly. It involves testing in different situation and environments such as vibration, mechanical shock, frop, pull & shear, bending test, high/low temperature, high humidity, salty environment, etc.
Reliability tests can involve physical testing, such as vibration or environmental testing, such as temperature cycling, moisture exposure, and solder fatigue analysis. These tests enable manufacturers to identify potential problems during usage stage fro customers. By performing these tests regularly, manufacturers can ensure that their products are safe to use and operate as expected.
The reliability Test of PCB assembly is an integral part of the manufacturing process, ensuring that a product will function properly and safely in its intended environment. Here are some of the the normal reliability tests:
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Viasion Technology is your trusted partner & one-stop shop for PCB fabrication, components sourcing, PCB assembly and electronic manufacturing. With more than 16 years of experience, we have been supplying high-quality PCBs with competitive pricing for 1000+ customers worldwide. Our company is ISO9001:2015 Certified & UL Listed, and all our products are 100% E-tested and inspected by AOI & X-RAY to meet the highest industry standards. So please get an instant quote from our sales team now, and we will take care of the rest.