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What is Inverter PCB?
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Key Advantages of An Inverter PCB
Applications of An Inverter PCB
Key Points in High-Power Inverter PCB Design
From the selection of the type of power switch to the PCB layout, a lot of design decisions will affect the robustness of the high-power inverter design. Some key points in the design of a high-power inverter are summarized below:
Evaluate the types of the power switchThe first thing when designing a high-power inverter system is to decide the type of power switch. The power switch has distinctive functions and requirements, like the limitation of the voltage, temperature range, and work frequency, this will drive many design decisions of high-power inverters, including the use of which type of gate driver. The four main power switches are:
1) Silicon MOSFET
2) Insulated gate bipolar
3) transistor ( IGBT )
4) Silicon carbide ( SiC )
5) Gallium nitride ( GaN )
Five Steps in high power inverter PCB design
Although the process of PCB designing is fascinating and challenging for the designer, a lot of necessary precautions must adopt to ensure correct circuit operation, especially when you design a high-power inverter PCB board. With the size of electronic equipment becoming more and more smaller, so we need to properly consider some design problems such as power supply and thermal management, etc. We will introduce some guidelines to you to show the PCB design process, you can follow them to design PCBs that are suitable for supporting high-power applications.
1. PCB layout
2. Component placement
First, the position of high-power components (such as voltage converters or power transistors) responsible for generating a large amount of heat must be determined on the PCB, this is very important. The high-power components should not solder near the PCB edge, because it will cause heat accumulation and temperature will increase significantly.
The highly integrated digital components ( such as a microcontroller, processor, and FPGA ) should be put in the middle of the PCB so that the heat is evenly diffused on the board and then reduce the temperature. In any circumstances, should not put the power components together in the same area, avoid to forming hot spots. Opposite, Linear type arrangements are preferred.
The components place should start with power equipment, and the trace of power equipment should be kept as short and wide as possible, to eliminate noise and unnecessary grounding loops. Normally, the rules are as below.
In some circumstances, you also can put the components in a few different boards, as long as the size of the equipment allows.
Proper thermal management must be carried out, to keep each component in the safe temperature range. The junction temperature shall not exceed the limits indicated in the manufacturer’s data sheet ( For Silicon-based components, the temperature is typically between + 125 °C and + 175 °C ). The thermal cause by each component will transfer to the external by package and joint pin. In recent years, electronic component manufacturers had established more and more thermal compatibility packages. Even with the development of those packages, and with the size of PCB shrinking, dissipating heat also become more and more complicated.
There are two main kinds of technology to improve PCB thermal management. They are creating a larger ground plane and insert the thermal through the hole. The first technology that creates a larger ground layer can increase the dissipated heat area on PCB. Normally, these planes connect to the top layer or bottom layer and exchange the heat with the surrounding environment in the highest measure. But, the inner layer can also be used to extract part of the power consumed by the equipment on the PCB. Instead, the second technology that uses thermal through holes is to transfer the thermal from one layer to another layer in the same PCB. The function of those thermal through holes is to lead the thermal from the hottest point on the board to other layers.
Many components used in electronic circuits, like regulators, amplifiers, and converters are extremely sensitive to fluctuations in the surrounding environment. If they detect significant thermal changes, will change the signal they engender, then will generate errors and reduce equipment reliability. So, it is important to thermally insulate these sensitive components so that they are not affected by the thermal generated on the circuit board.
Another technology you can use to allow the trace to carry more current is to remove the solder mask layer from PCB. Removing the solder mask will expose the copper material, and then you can add extra soldering flux to increase the thickness of copper and reduce the overall resistance of PCB current-carrying elements. Although this technology can be seen as more solutions than design rules, this technology allows the PCB trace to carry bigger power, and no need to add the width of traces.
When distributing and sharing power cords between multiple circuit board components, some components may engender dangerous phenomena, for example grounding bounce, and ringing. This may cause the voltage near the components’ power pin to drop. To overcome this problem, you can use the decoupling capacitor, and please note that: one terminal of the capacitor must be placed as close as possible to the pin of the component receiving the power, and the other terminal must be connected to the low-impedance ground layer directly. The purpose is to reduce the impedance between the power rail and the ground.
A decoupling capacitor is used as a secondary power supply, providing the required current to components during each transient (voltage ripple or noise). Choosing a decoupling capacitor need to consider several factors. Those factors include choosing the correct capacitor value, dielectric material, geometry, and position of the capacitor relative to the electronic component. The typical value for a decoupling capacitor is 0.2uF ceramics.
Inverter PCB Layout Principle
- Key signal priority: Priority layout of the key signal of Radiofrequency, high-speed signal, the clock signal, synchronization signal, etc.
- Density priority principle: Start with the components with the most complex connection relationship on the single board, and start the layout with the most concentrated area on the single board.
- Ground circuit ( signal ) rules: This Means the ring circuit minimum principle, requires the signal circuit and its return circuit to constitute a ring area must be as small as possible. In the small ring area, the external radiation is less, interference of receiving external radiation also smaller.
- Open loop inspection rules for wiring: normally, the layout with one end floating is not allowed, this is mainly to avoid the “ antenna effect ”, and reduce unnecessary radiation interference and receive, otherwise, it may bring some unpredictable results for the PCB.
- Impedance matching inspection rules: The trace width of the same network shall be consistent, the trace width change will cause nonuniformity of trace characteristic impedance, thereby generating signal reflection when in the high transmission speed, so must avoid this situation when designing the PCB.
- The power layer and ground layer integrity rules: For those through hole dense area, need to pay attention to avoid the via holes invisible connection in the hollowed-out area of the power layer and the ground layer, this will form the actual division of the levelling layer, and then destroy the integrity of plane layer. In the end, the loop area of the signal in the ground layer will increase.
- The power supply area of different layers shall not overlap each other in space, that is mainly to reduce the time interference of different power, especially between some large voltage difference power supplies. If overlapping can’t be avoided, the middle ground layer to separate them should be added.
How to Design a Perfect Inverter PCB
Classification of Photovoltaic Inverter PCB
Most Important Requirements for A Photovoltaic Inverter PCB
Best Photovoltaic Inverter PCB Material: Ceramic Material
Why Choose Viasion for Your Inverter PCB
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Frequently Asked Questions
As mentioned before, Inverter PCB is the PCB used in equipment that changes DC electric energy ( battery, accumulator jar ) into alternating current ( normally 220 V, 50Hz sine wave ).
The inverter PCB board allows the inverter to transform the DC voltage output from the power adapter into high-frequency, high-voltage AC power.
An inverter, also known as an inverter power supply, is a power conversion device that converts 12V or 24V DC power into 240V, 50Hz AC power, or other types of AC power.
1) Evaluate the types of the power switch
2) Consider the requirements of working voltage
3) Application program and PCB layout
4) Consider how to supply power to the secondary side
Yes, the inverter circuit board can be repaired and maintainable.
Components such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes, resistors, IC chips, etc., can be mounted on an inverter PCB board.
It is hard to answer this question with specific data. We need to specify the battery voltage before we know how many amperes are needed. Different battery voltages require different currents.
Main types of inverter PCB are listed below.
1) Active Inverter
2) Passive Inverter
3) Off-grid Inverter
4) Grid-connected Inverter
5) Two-level inverter
6) Three-level inverter
7) Multilevel Inverter
8) High Power Inverter
9) Medium Power Inverter
10) Small Power Inverter
To effectively dissipate heat from the electrical components on the inverter printed circuit, the inverter PCB board needs a structure for heat dissipation or the use of a heat sink.
1) The inverter PCB has a fast start-up and a very high efficiency of conversion
2) Its safety is excellent
3) It has very good stability. In case of insufficient voltage, negative voltage, etc., it can maintain its performance well without changing.
Since the printed circuit board is the skeleton that supports the components and the conduit that connects the electrical signals, the inverter PCB is an important guarantee that the inverter will perform its function.
Its biggest disadvantage is the high cost.
Of course, we can manufacture custom inverter PCBs. We will provide custom inverter PCB board according to your requirements.
Generally, it is normal for inverters to have some heat generation. The heat sink system of the inverter mainly includes a heat sink, cooling fan, and thermal grease. If the inverter PCB is too hot you have to see whether the load is too large and whether the supply voltage is normal.
The production process of inverter PCB is shown below.
Cutting & grinding → drilling → outer layer graphics → copper etching → AOI inspection → solder mask→ (hot air leveling/ENIG/OSP) → silkscreen → the processing of the shape → E-test → final inspection
Many types of materials are used in inverter PCBs; the following ones are most commonly used.
1) CEM-1 materials
2) CEM-3 materials
3) FR-4 materials
The quality of the inverter PCB needs to pass the following certifications.
1) ISO 9001
Under normal operation, the inverter PCB will not be melted down due to the protection of the heat dissipation system.
The price of the inverter PCB is mainly determined by the following factors.
1) Base material
2) The dimension
3) The number of layers
4) Copper thickness
5) The thickness
6) Layup structure
7) The number of blind/buried vias
8) Surface finishes
9) Special technology or requirements
The lead time of the inverter PCB in Viasion is one to four weeks.
There are many outstanding manufacturers of inverter PCB. Viasion is one of the best manufacturers of inverter PCB. We are looking forward to becoming your partner!
If you want to order the Inverter PCB, please email to our sales staff. Their contact information (phone number and email address) is listed on our official website: https://www.viasion.com/contact-us/. We will reply to you as soon as possible. We will offer you high-quality products of Inverter boards with competitive pricing. You are welcome to order the inverter printed circuit boards in Viasion. We are looking forward to serving you!
Our company is located in Shenzhen, China. Shenzhen has many advantages in foreign export trade. We can import products of the inverter PCB through international logistics.
The express options include DHL, UPS, FedEx, TNT, etc. Products can be shipped by air, or by sea. Anyway, we will ship the products according to your requirements and for your convenience.
Please consider the following things before buying an inverter PCB.
1) The production experience of the manufacturer
2) The reliability of the manufacturer
3) The quality of the products
4) The reasonableness of the manufacturer’s quotation
5) The manufacturer’s service attitude, etc.
Yes, we will provide after-sales service for inverter PCB. Whenever you need our help, we are here to serve you. Please feel free to contact us.
There are no specific criteria for the average life of an inverter PCB, but it can used for more than 15 years in a typical environment.
We will offer a 12-month quality guarantee on the bare PCBs subject to T&Cs (Terms and Conditions).