Guide, PCB Manufacturing

The Ultimate Guide to VIPPO PCB Manufacturing

VIPPO PCB

With the use of demand and all aspects of optimisation needs, several PCB processing technologies came into being. To enable the PCB to carry more components, PCB VIPPO technology was born. It makes it possible to manufacture VIPPO PCBs, making the circuit more compact, which can reduce the size of the electronic product and improve the performance of the PCB.

What is VIPPO PCB?

VIPPO PCB is a special type of printed circuit board with VIPPO technology. VIPPO stands for (Via in Pad plated over) or say (Plated over filled via) callout, this is a specialised technique used in printed circuit board design, it involves placing via directly on the surface mounts pad of components. It is a very useful technique practically made for high-density PCB designs where space are major constraint & routing of traces is more & more challenging that is why we use these techniques to optimize our PCB designs in given available space, this type of technique also allows for reducing the size of PCB & improves signal integrity.

Two Types of Via Filling in  VIPPO PCBs

The basic structure of VIPPO in a PCB is drilled via through the solder pad of the surface mount component. This via is plated with copper to create a conductive connection between the different layers of the PCB. Two major processes to achieve PCB VIPPO technology are given below.

  • Via Drilling: The Vias are drilled by the VIPPO PCB machine.
  • Via Filling: When the drilling process is done, the holes are typically filled with a conductive material to ensure that electrical connectivity is established.

There are two types of via filling options available for this PCB VIPPO technology, which are given in table format.

Type Conductive paste Electroless plating
Via filling The conductive paste, which is a combination of epoxy & metal particles like silver, is deposited into a via hole. This paste was treated at high temperatures to solidify it & establish electrical continuity & connection. This PCB VIPPO technology for filling via involves a chemical process that deposits a thin layer of copper on the via walls. After this process, we do another process to provide stability. In this process, we do electroplate to provide thickness to the copper layer to ensure filling.
Benefits
  1. Simple & faster process compared to electroless plating.
  2. Cost-effective for low-volume production.
  1. Provide uniformity & continuity to the copper coating on the via walls compared to conductive paste.
  2. Provides better control over the final via diameter & electrical conductivity.
Considerations
  1. Paste viscosity plays a crucial role in proper filling, especially for smaller via.
  2. The high temperature required for paste curing may not suit heat-sensitive components.
  3. Quality & consistency of filled via may be less controlled.
  1. More expensive & time-consuming than conductive paste.
  2. A multistep chemical process requiring precise solution composition & processing parameters.

Difference Between VIPPO Vias and  Traditional Vias

Points VIPPO Traditional Vias
Structure Via in VIPPO PCB is drilled through the component solder pad Via in traditional PCB drilled between separate pads on the different layers
Space utility Denser routing as vias are within component pads Less dense routing as via requires dedicated pads
Signal integrity Better signal integrity Lower signal integrity
Thermal issue Lower thermal issue Higher thermal issue
Mechanical stability High mechanical strength between via and pad Lower mechanical strength
Cost Low-cost & high-volume production Low-cost & low-volume production
Production Required high-precision VIPPO PCB machinery Simple PCB manufacturing machinery
Application Small consumer electronics, high-speed electronics, Automotive ECUs General purpose circuitry, lower density designs.

 

The Manufacturing process of VIPPO PCBs

Flow Process Remarks
Drilling Holes of VIPPO PCBs created by high precision laser drilling process.
Via wall preparation Chemical treatment improves adhesion between filling material & copper walls.
Via filling Conductive paste & electroless plating are the main techniques.
Plating A combination of electroless & electroplating processes creates smooth via barrel.
Surface finishing The whole VIPPO PCB surface undergoes various finishing processes.
Electrical testing State-of-the-art testing assures proper electrical continuity & functionality.

VIPPO Best Practices

  1. Prototype and test continuously
  2. Clear design documentation should be available
  3. Ensure to have a high-quality control process
  4. Choose material according to suitable needs
  5. Work closely with the VIPPO PCB design team during the design phase.

Designing Considerations for VIPPO PCBs

Selecting materials to design industry-specific VIPPO PCBs fulfil their needs and requirements great but here is a solution to the problem, here are the PCB VIPPO techniques to choose the materials of the VIPPO PCB on the given engineering & scientific parameters are given below

Base materials Dielectric constant (Dk) It impacts signal speed. For high-speed circuits, lower Dk material is better to reduce delays and maintain signal integrity.
Thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) Mismatch in this mathematical coefficient can cause stress and failure. Choose materials with closely matched CTE to components with VIPPO vias to reduce stress.
Thermal conductivity(k) This affects the heat transfer in PCBs. High Thermal conductivity materials are preferred to dissipate heat from components, especially with VIPPO PCBs. FR-4, metal-based PCB, and insulated materials (IMS) are common choices.
Via filling materials Electrical conductivity The materials used to fill via must have high electrical conductivity. It is better for effective signal transmission. Options are available like conductive paste with silver particles or electroless plating with copper.
Thermal conductivity(k) It is best to consider the thermal conductivity of the via filling material. While conductive paste is good for electrical conductivity, copper has better thermal conductivity purpose. It is better to check thermal properties to prevent heat build-up around VIPPO PCBs.
Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) The CTE of the via filling material should match with available materials on PCBs to reduce stress during deltas () in temperature.
Additional consideration Material compatibility Assure that the base materials, via fillings materials & surface finish (E.g., ENIG, HASL) are compatible to prevent adhesion or reliability issues in the VIPPO PCB.
Processability The material of the VIPPO PCB chosen by the industry should match and work well with the manufacturing methods used for VIPPO PCB fabrication.

Useful Key Points in VIPPO Technology

Points Description
Smaller & thinner systems This method used in VIPPO PCB allows for denser component placement, resulting in smaller and thinner consumer electronics systems such as smartphones, tablets and wearables.
Better signal transmission This method reduces vias’ length and minimises parasitic effects, leading to better signal integrity for high-speed interfaces like USB-C and HDMI.
Better resistance The strong connection between vias and component pads enhances durability, making portable systems more resistant to vibrations and mechanical stress.
Cost-effectiveness It also reduces PCB layer count which tends to lower manufacturing costs and high-volume productions achieved.
Efficient routing It enables efficient routing, which is suitable for complex automotive electronics circuitry and systems.
Enhanced durability This allows robust vias structure which means it can handle harsh conditions like vibrations, temperature, and moisture.
Weight reduction It allows thinner and lighter PCBs which tends to reduce overall weight reduction in electronic system
Support for ADAS Its own capability to handle high-speed signals, it is very suitable for development in Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) requiring faster data processing and communication.

Advantages of VIPPO PCBs

  1. Suitable for Ball grid array packages.
  2. Helps to save on the cost of designing PCBs.
  3. Provide mechanical stability to assure strength.
  4. Improves signal integrity.
  5. Provides cross-talk optimisation.
  6. Suitable for high-density routing trace design.
  7. Provides stable heat dissipation system

Challenges in VIPPO PCB Manufacturing

  1. Cost: Special methods and rework can impact VIPPO PCB manufacturing costs to create low-volume applications.
  2. Quality Measures: Strict measures of VIPPO PCB are needed to ensure proper via formation, filling, plating thickness, and overall functionality.
  3. Material Selection: Choosing compatible materials for the base of VIPPO PCBs, via filling, and surface finishes is crucial to avoid adhesion and reliability issues.
  4. Process Complexity: It requires specialised VIPPO PCB drilling machinery for precise via formation and careful quality control (filling with conductive paste or plating).

Future Trends in VIPPO Technology

Future Trends in VIPPO Technology

Enhanced thermal management: Ongoing R&D process via filling materials and thermally conductive adhesives for better heat transfer.

  • Conductive Filler: Innovative R&D process develops higher electrical conductivity, lower thermal resistance, and novel conductive inks for precise inkjet printing.
  • Nanomaterials: Nanotubes and graphene for better thermal conductivity and electrical performance.
  • Flexible Substrate: Combining VIPPO with a flexible substrate tends to miniaturisation in electronics circuits.

Conclusion

PCB manufacturing benefits from this PCB VIPPO technology with increased routing density, better signal integrity, stronger mechanical stability, and cost savings. Specialised drilling and via filling methods, material selection, and design for manufacturability are necessary. It is ideal for small consumer electronics, high-speed systems, automotive system ECUs, and ADAS. Advancements in PCB materials, potential integration with flexible substrates, and enhancements in thermal management and electrical performance are possible. Challenges include process complexity, strict quality control requirements, and cost considerations for small-scale VIPPO PCB production.

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