Electronics Manufacturing Service

Electronics Manufacturing Process: A Comprehensive Guide

Electronics Development and Manufacturing

Electronics manufacturing is one of the core components of our economy. It generates a large amount of employment, and in the modern day of Our Earth Electronics have become a continuous part of human life. Therefore, we as a human cannot survive in the modern world without electronic goods. Electronics manufacturing industries produce all the electronics goods from Telephone, Mobile, Computer to Drown, Aircraft, Rocket, and Satellite everywhere electronics goods are used. Some items a pure electronics items and somewhere as sub-modules but electronics goods are used in almost every modern equipment. As a result, the Electronics manufacturing industries are growing rapidly.
Electronics manufacturing process can be separated in mainly six main sectors.

  • Design & Development
  • Prototyping and Finalising
  • Serial Production
  • Testing
  • Quality control
  • Distributing

Electronics Manufacturing Process

Step 1: Design & Development

This is the most critical process of electronic goods manufacturing. Before, going to serial production, the equipment or the sub-module as per the customer requirement or market demand needs to specify the specification or features. If it finds that it is a new product then needs to do Research & Development and if it finds that an old product needs to update then needs to go for Design & Development. After finalizing the specification, it will go to the design department. As per the specification design engineers, design the equipment or the sub-module.

This Design Process is also separated into various subprocesses like.

  • Electronics Schematic and PCB Design.
  • BoM Preparation and Procurement.
  • Prototyping.
  • Design finalising or freezing.

The following are the detailed steps for design and development before in electronics manufacturing process.

Electronics Schematic and PCB Design

This is basic electronics Design it can be separated into Schematic Design and Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design in these two sectors: schematic design and PCB design.

  • Schematic Design: This is the architecture of the Design, Design Engineers finalise the Components like Resistors, capacitors, ICs, Controllers etc. as per the specified specifications or features and the connection between the components or creating the netlist. As per the required Components, they will prepare a Bill of Material also known as BoM.
  • Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design: In this process, as per the Schematic Design or the netlist PCBs are Designed. Here Design Engineers finalise the physical diameters of the PCB and the numbers of Layers etc. draw the tracks and create the Gerber File for manufacturing the Printed Circuit Board (PCB).

After completing the Schematic Design and Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design, the Design team gives the BoM and Gerber files for procurement.

BoM Preparation and Procurement

BoM is the short form of a Bill of material, It is one of the most important technical documents, in which all the components are mentioned with their specification for building one unit of the product.

Procurement is a very important stage in the electronics manufacturing process. As per the technical documentation, a Bill of Material (BOM), needs to procure the components. During the procurement need to take care of the long lead material and alternat of unavoidable materials. (Alternate materials need to be approved by the Design team)

Electronics Design and Manufacturing

Step 2: Prototyping and Finalising

After completing of design, the electronics manufacturing process is started, in which where first need to build a working product where we can test all kinds of functions, this process is called prototyping.

It goes through various steps like testing of product design function ability, customer feedback etc. The prototyping phase gives the opportunity to identify and resolve any kind of technical problem of a product like manufacturing defects, process difficulty, component compatibility issues etc.

There are two types of prototyping. Physical prototyping and virtual Prototyping. In the case of physical prototyping, a full-scale or scale-down model of the original product is made and Virtual prototyping means a computer-generated simulation of the product using advanced technology.

Prototyping gives different types of results and data that will help to improve the overall quality of the product and reduce the risk of manufacturing defects in muss production. It helps to get customer feedback, this allows the designer for further improvement for the product.
For Aerospace and High-end Electronics Products, Prototyping goes through a number of stages the Design Module, then the Design Verification Module, the Qualification Module and the End Flied Module. This Flied Module will go to the Serial Production.

After building the Prototype, once it clears its all functionality and technical parameters and customer feedback then the design is finalised or frozen and given clearance for serial Production.

Step 3: Serial Production

This is the longest process of an electronics manufacturing process, here product is large and scally assembled. It involves building together all the fabricated components and placement of components onto the printed circuit board (PCB) to create the final product, through automated surface mount technology (SMT) processes or manual insertion for through-hole components.

In serial production, the assembly can be done using Surface Mount Technology, where printed circuit boards (PCB) are placed under the stencil for applying solder paste. After applying the solder, PCBs are sent to the Pick and Place machine, where components are placed in there right place as per the BoM from the dispenser or feeder. Then the PCBs are sent to the reflow soldering machine for the soldering activity.

The manual insertion through hole component board also involves a number of different techniques like forming the components as per the PCB footprint pitch if needed placing the component in the right place and applying flux, after that, a soldering machine-like wave soldering machine or a manual soldering station is utilized to ensure that the components are soldered perfectly.

After the soldering, the PCB goes through the AOI machine (Automatic Optical Inspection) and Cleaning Process. Then the PCBs are sent to the testing or screening process.

Electronics Manufacturing Services

Step 4: Testing

After assembly, the product goes through a number of tests to ensure that the produced products meet the design frozen standard parameters. It also recognizes all kinds of deviation of the parameters or faults in the manufacturing process which helps to improve the overall quality of the product.

Electronics manufacturing process goes through different types of testing like performance or function-ability testing, reliability testing, Thermal stress testing, Vibration testing, EMI/EMC testing etc. The function-ability test performs all kinds of functional parameters, and the reliability test validates the longevity and durability of the product. Some products go through stress tests which include testing like the Vibration test and Thermal stress test etc. to evaluate the stress handling and mechanical integrity.

Testing ensures that all the given features are working, the product is safe for use, it helps to maintain the quality parameters and improve the quality of the product, and reduces the risk of defects and malfunctions on the customer end, which helps to reduce the number of returns and complaints.

Basically, testing is performed through Automatic testing and Manual testing processes. In Automatic testing, Testing is performed through dedicated software, whereas per the product, parameters are fed and the software checks those parameters. In the Manual testing process, trained technicians check manually all the parameters.

Step 5: Quality Control

This is one of the most important processes in the manufacturing process. Industries follow this process in all the processes of manufacturing from design to dispatch. It helps to improve the quality of the product and mention the standard of the product, as well as reduce the risk of malfunction. The quality of the product is the most important parameter of a product for the customer.

Quality in the electronics manufacturing process can be classified into three parts. Class 1, class 2 and class 3. Where class 1 stander is for the normal consumable electronics equipment, Class 2 stander stands for industrial grate electronics equipment and Class 3 is for the Aerospace, Military grate and High-end Electronics equipment.

After testing the all-parameters equipment go to the final QC stages, here the QC engineers check the product as per the slandered-on quality control (SQC), and after the quality clearance, it goes for dispatch.

Step 6: Distributing

After successfully completing development testing and quality clearance, then the product is ready to go to the customer end or market, the process by which the product is sent to the marketplace or customer end is known as Distribution.

Distribution is mainly three types, direct distribution, in-direct distribution and third-party distribution. In direct distribution, the product is directly sold to the customer. In-direct distribution, where a product is distributed via distributors and wholesalers.

All types of distribution take place in different methods like a physical method where the product is sent using orthodox transport methods such as truck, train or air delivery, and Then online method where manufacturers sell their products from their website or e-commerce platforms. If the product is sent to international customers, then we need to take care of the specific country’s rules & regulations on that product.

In this method electronics manufacturing process took place. And the electronics product is come to us.

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